ALSPAC – Age 13 – Tests Of Reading Efficiency/Fluency (TOWRE)

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The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) assessed their cohort members (CMs) during the study’s age 13 sweep (TeenFocus 2) using Tests Of Reading Efficiency/Fluency (TOWRE).

Details on this measure and the data collected from the CMs are outlined in the table below.


Domain:Reading ability
Measures:Verbal expression
Lexical knowledge
Pronunciation
Sight word efficiency
Decoding efficiency
Reading speed
CHC:Crystallised Intelligence (Gc)
Grw (Reading/Writing)
Administration method:Trained interviewer; clinical setting; oral answers
Procedure:The child was presented with two lists, one consisting of real words (e.g. she, strong, crowd) and the other nonwords (e.g. ip, nup, poth). The child was asked to read the words aloud as quickly as possible (max time limit of 45 seconds per list).
Link to questionnaire:http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/our-data/clinical-measures/ (opens in new tab)
Scoring:Score based on number of correct words within timeframe.
Item-level variable(s):Not readily available.
Total score/derived variable(s):fg5700 - fg5925
Descriptives:Real word finished onNon-word finished on
N = 5,535N = 5,522
Range = 18- 104Range = 4 - 63
Mean = 82.54Mean = 50.80
SD = 10.35SD = 9.41
(click image to enlarge)
(click image to enlarge)
Age of participants:Mean (months) = 166.02, SD = 2.49, Range = 150 - 182
Other sweep and/or cohort:ALSPAC – Age 12.5 – Tests Of Reading Efficiency/Fluency (TOWRE)
Source:Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Wagner, R. K. (1999). TOWRE: Test of word reading efficiency. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
Technical resources:None.
Reference examples:Bryant, P., Nunes, T., & Barros, R. (2014). The connection between children's knowledge and use of grapho?phonic and morphemic units in written text and their learning at school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 211-225.
Davis, O. S., Band, G., Pirinen, M., Haworth, C. M., Meaburn, E. L., Kovas, Y., ... & Curtis, C. J. (2014). The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component. Nature Communications, 5, 4204.

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This page is part of CLOSER’s ‘A guide to the cognitive measures in five British birth cohort studies’.