ALSPAC – Age 4 – WPPSI-RUK Arithmetic

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The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) assessed their cohort members (CMs) at 49 months’ age (Children in Focus Clinic) using the Arithmetic measure from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised (WPPSI-RUK).

Details on this measure and the data collected from the CMs are outlined in the table below.


Domain:Arithmetic ability
Measures:Numeric reasoning
Sequential processing
CHC:Gq (Quantitative Knowledge)
Administration method:Trained interviewer; clinical setting; pointing; questions and answers delivered orally
Procedure:The test contained 23 items. For items 1-7, the child was asked to point to an object that illustrated a particular quantitative characteristic on a visually presented array of objects. For items 8-11 the child demonstrated numeric knowledge by counting and manipulating blocks. For items 12-23, the child solved arithmetic problems that were read aloud by the interviewer. There was a time-limit for each of questions 12-23. If the child held up the correct number of fingers to indicate a numeric response, this was accepted.
Link to questionnaire:http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/our-data/clinical-measures/ (opens in new tab)
Scoring:Standardised score (M = 10, SD = 3)
Item-level variable(s):Not readily available
Total score/derived variable(s):cf808
Descriptives:Raw score
N = 1,015
Range = 1 - 19
Mean = 10.02
SD = 2.56
(click image to enlarge)
Age of participants:Mean = 212.39 weeks, SD = 1.63, Range = 207-221
Other sweep and/or cohort:None
Source:Wechsler, D. (1989). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. WPPSI-R. Psychological Corporation.
Technical resources:Kaufman, A. S., & Lichtenberger, E. O. (2000). Essentials of WISC-III and WPPSI-R Assessment. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Reference examples:Gathercole, S. E., Briscoe, J., Thorn, A., Tiffany, C., & ALSPAC Study Team. (2008). Deficits in verbal long-term memory and learning in children with poor phonological short-term memory skills. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(3), 474-490.
Taylor, C. M., Kordas, K., Golding, J., & Emond, A. M. (2017). Data relating to prenatal lead exposure and child IQ at 4 and 8 years old in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Neurotoxicology, 62, 224-230.

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This page is part of CLOSER’s ‘A guide to the cognitive measures in five British birth cohort studies’.