ALSPAC – Age 4 – WPPSI-RUK Mazes

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The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) assessed their cohort members (CMs) at 49 months’ age (Children in Focus Clinic) using the Mazes measure from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised (WPPSI-RUK).

Details on this measure and the data collected from the CMs are outlined in the table below.


Domain:Non-verbal ability
Measures:Planning
Simultaneous processing
Spatial visualisation
Visual-motor coordination
Spatial scanning
CHC:Gv (Visual processing)
Administration method:Trained interviewer; clinical setting; pen and paper
Procedure:The child was presented with a series of mazes, and instructed to draw a pathway to the centre of each maze. For the first two mazes, the interviewer demonstrated by drawing half of the line. When necessary, the interviewer made use of several prompts to encourage the child to complete the mazes.
Link to questionnaire:http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/our-data/clinical-measures/ (opens in new tab)
Scoring:Standardised score (M = 10, SD = 3)
Item-level variable(s):Not readily available
Total score/derived variable(s):cf804
Descriptives:Raw score
N = 1,013
Range = 1 - 19
Mean = 9.87
SD = 2.95
(click image to enlarge)
Age of participants:Mean = 212.39 weeks, SD = 1.63, Range = 207 - 221
Other sweep and/or cohort:None
Source:Wechsler, D. (1989). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. WPPSI-R. Psychological Corporation.
Technical resources:Kaufman, A. S., & Lichtenberger, E. O. (2000). Essentials of WISC-III and WPPSI-R Assessment. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Reference examples:Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C. S., Bell, C., Haynes, O. M., Slater, A., Golding, J., ... & ALSPAC Study Team. (2006). Stability in cognition across early childhood: A developmental cascade. Psychological Science, 17(2), 151-158.
Taylor, C. M., Kordas, K., Golding, J., & Emond, A. M. (2017). Data relating to prenatal lead exposure and child IQ at 4 and 8 years old in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Neurotoxicology, 62, 224-230.

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This page is part of CLOSER’s ‘A guide to the cognitive measures in five British birth cohort studies’.