COVID-19 Research and Evidence Tracker

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This section contains the latest COVID-19 longitudinal research and evidence, including briefing notes, reports, academic publications and articles.

Use the table below to search, sort and filter by study, topic, and geographical coverage.

Download the CLOSER COVID-19 Longitudinal Research and Evidence Tracker
Last updated: 13 November 2020


COVID-19 PublicationDate of publicationLongitudinal studyGeographical coverageType of publicationTopic/themeAccess publication
Understanding Society COVID-19 Survey Briefing Note: Social cohesion –
what has changed during the coronavirus outbreak?
November 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteSocial cohesion; Deprivation; Ethnic minoritiesLink to the briefing note
Comparison of two different frailty measurements and risk of hospitalisation or death from COVID-19: findings from UK Biobank.November 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleFrailty; Lifestyle; HospitalisationLink to the article
Is older age associated with COVID-19 mortality in the absence of other risk factors? General population cohort study of 470,034 participants.November 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleOld age; Mortality; ComorbiditiesLink to the article
Coming together or coming apart? Changes in social cohesion during the Covid-19 pandemic in EnglandOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleSocial cohesion; Trust; NeighbourhoodsLink to the article
At the edge of the
safety net: Unsuccessful benefits claims at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic
October 2020Understanding SocietyNationalReportBenefits claimants; Inequalities; Mental healthLink to the report
Experiences of lockdown during the Covid-19 pandemic: descriptive findings from a survey of families in the Born in Bradford studyOctober 2020Born in BradfordRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Anxiety; Financial insecurity; FamiliesLink to the paper
Generation COVID: Emerging Work and Education Inequalities October 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperUnemployment; Learning; GenerationsLink to the paper
Fare differently, feel differently: mental well-being of UK-born and foreign-born working men during the COVID-19 pandemic European SocietiesOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleMental health; Gender; NationalityLink to the article
MPCs through COVID: spending, saving and private transfersOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperHousehold finances; Consumption; UncertaintyLink to the paper
Work, care and gender during the COVID-19 crisisOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalDiscussion paperGender; Inequalities; CaringLink to the paper
Trust in government and others during the COVID-19 pandemic - Initial findings from the COVID-19 Survey in Five National Longitudinal Studies. October 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalBriefing paperTrust; Compliance; Social distancingLink to the briefing paper
Carrying the work burden of the COVID-19 pandemic: working class women in the UKOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing NoteGender; Class; Employment; Mental healthLink to the briefing note
Weather Affects Mobility but not Mental Well-being During LockdownOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperWeather; Lockdown; Mental HealthLink to the paper
The Heterogeneous and Regressive Consequences of COVID-19: Evidence from High Quality Panel DataOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperEmployment; Inequalities; Financial distressLink to the paper
Sociodemographic inequality in exposure to COVID-19-induced economic hardship in the United KingdomOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleInequalities; Economic hardship; EarningsLink to the article
Risk of Depression in Family Caregivers: Unintended Consequence of COVID-19October 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleDepression; Family caregiving; LonelinessLink to the paper
Half of children entitled to free school meals do not have access to the scheme during the COVID-19 lockdown in the UKOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleFree school meals; Food insecurity; PovertyLink to the paper
Financial consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for older peopleSeptember 2020English Longitudinal Study of AgeingNationalBriefing NoteOlder people; Financial circumstances; UnemploymentLink to the briefing note
The experience of older people instructed to shield or self-isolate during the COVID-19 pandemicSeptember 2020English Longitudinal Study of AgeingNationalBriefing NoteOlder people; Self-isolation; Mental healthLink to the briefing note
The experience
of older people with multimorbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic
September 2020English Longitudinal Study of AgeingNationalBriefing NoteOlder people; Comorbidity; Health behavioursLink to the briefing note
Changes in older people’s
experiences of providing care and of volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic
September 2020English Longitudinal Study of AgeingNationalBriefing NoteOlder people; Caring; VolunteeringLink to the briefing note
Mental health and health behaviours before and during the COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of the UK Household Longitudinal StudySeptember 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleMental health; Health behaviours; Psychological distressLink to the article
Obesity as a risk factor for COVID-19 mortality in women and men in the UK Biobank: comparisons with influenza/pneumonia and coronary heart disease September 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleObesity; Influenza; ComorbidityLink to the article
Poor inhibitory control and stress as risk-factors for alcohol (mis)use during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK: a national cross-sectional study across four generationsSeptember 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Alcohol consumption; Stress; Health behavioursLink to the paper
Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19September 2020Generation Scotland; UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Genetics; Comorbidity; GenomicsLink to the paper
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children - A resource for COVID-19 research: Questionnaire data capture May-July 2020September 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalData note (awaiting peer review)Cross-generation; Health; Well-being; BehaviourLink to the Data note
Inequality in access to health and care services during lockdown - Findings from the COVID-19 survey in five UK national longitudinal studiesSeptember 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Access to health care; Inequalities; Public healthLink to the paper
The impact of asthma on mental health & wellbeing during COVID-19 lockdownSeptember 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Asthma; Self-isolation; Mental healthLink to the paper
COVID-19: has the pandemic affected relationships between children and their non-resident parents?September 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing NoteSeparated families; Child maintenance; Parent-child relationshipsLink to the briefing note
Changing living arrangements, family dynamics and stress during lockdown: evidence from four birth cohorts in the UK September 2020Understanding Society, Millennium Cohort Study; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study;NationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Living arrangements; Stress; LockdownLink to the paper
Occupation and risk of severe COVID-19: prospective cohort study of 120,075 UK BiobankSeptember 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Occupation; Inequalities; Health workersLink to the paper
Prevalence and Predictors of General Psychiatric Disorders and Loneliness during COVID-19 in the United Kingdom: Results from the Understanding Society UKHLS September 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleLoneliness; Mental health; InequalitiesLink to the article
BMI and future risk for COVID-19 infection and death across sex, age and ethnicity: preliminary findings from UK biobankSeptember 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleBMI; Physical health; EthnicityLink to the paper
Mental health and health behaviours before and during the COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of the UK Household Longitudinal Study.September 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleMental health; Health behaviours; Psychological distressLink to the paper
Who is lonely in lockdown? Cross-cohort analyses of predictors of loneliness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic September 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleCross-cohort; Loneliness; InequalitiesLink to the article
All together now? The impacts of the Government’s coronavirus income support schemes across the age distributionSeptember 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteHousehold income; Financial support; Social securityLink to the briefing note
Longitudinal evidence for persistent anxiety in young adults through COVID-19 restrictionsAugust 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Anxiety; Lockdown; AdolescentsLink to the paper
Gender differences in the impact of the Covid-19 lockdown on unpaid care work and psychological distress in the UKAugust 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Lockdown; Gender inequalities; Unpaid care workLink to the paper
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in pregnant women: characterization of symptoms and syndromes predictive of disease and severity through real-time, remote participatory epidemiologyAugust 2020TwinsUKNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Pregnancy; Epidemiology; ComorbidityLink to the paper
Association of obesity and its genetic predisposition with the risk of severe COVID-19: Analysis of population-based cohort dataAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleObesity; Genetics; EpidemiologyLink to the article
Excess cardiovascular deaths in the beginning of COVID-19 outbreakAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Cardiovascular disease; Mortality; HospitalizationLink to the paper
Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection and mortality in UK Biobank August 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleVitamin D; Mortality; InequalitiesLink to the article
Genetically-predicted vitamin D status, ambient UVB during the pandemic and COVID-19 risk in UK Biobank: Mendelian Randomisation studyAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Vitamin D; Genetics; SeasonalityLink to the paper
The Born in Bradford COVID-19 Research Study: Protocol for an adaptive mixed methods research study to gather actionable intelligence on the impact of COVID-19 on health inequalities amongst families living in BradfordAugust 2020Born in BradfordRegionalArticleHealth inequalities; Deprivation; Ethnicity; MethodologyLink to the paper
Who is left behind? Altruism of giving, happiness and mental health during the Covid-19 period in the UKAugust 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Altruism; Mental health; HappinessLink to the paper
What can previous recessions tell us about the Covid-19 downturn?August 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperRecession; Unemployment; InequalitiesLink to the paper
Estrogen and COVID-19 symptoms: associations in women from the COVID Symptom StudyAugust 2020Twins UK/Symptom StudyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Estrogen; Women; MenopauseLink to the paper
TeenCovidLife Survey 1 General Report
Health and wellbeing of young people in lockdown
August 2020Generation ScotlandDevolved NationsReportYoung people; Well being; StressLink to the report
Working parents, financial insecurity, and child-care: mental health in the time of COVID-19August 2020Understanding SocietyNationalDiscussion paperMental health; Child care; Financial insecurityLink to the paper
Mental health during lockdown: evidence from four generations - Initial findings from the COVID-19 Survey in Five National Longitudinal StudiesAugust 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalBriefing NoteMental health; Generations; InequalitiesLink to the briefing note
Intersecting ethnic and native–migrant inequalities in the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UKAugust 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleEthnicity; Socioeconomic status; InequalitiesLink to the article
Ethnic differences in effects of COVID-19:
household and local context
August 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing NoteEthnicity; Mental health; Neighbourhood cohesionLink to the briefing note
Dynamic linkage of COVID-19 test results between Public Health England's Second Generation Surveillance System and UK BiobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleEpidemiology; Genetics; MicrobiologyLink to the article
Preexisting Comorbidities Predicting COVID-19 and Mortality in the UK Biobank Community CohortJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleComorbidity; Mortality; EpidemiologyLink to the article
Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic COVID-19 disease in a population sample from SE EnglandJuly 2020Twins UKRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptomology; Serology; AntibodiesLink to the paper
Changes in the behavioural determinants of health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: gender, socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in 5 British cohort studiesJuly 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Health behaviour; Gender; InequalitiesLink to the paper
Learning inequalities during the Covid-19 pandemic: how families cope with home-schoolingJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking PaperHome schooling; Family structure; Socioeconomic disadvantageLink to the report
Coronavirus and the impact on caringJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalReportCaring; Support; Well beingLink to the report
Finances and employment during lockdown - Initial findings from the COVID-19 Survey in Five National Longitudinal StudiesJuly 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalBriefing NoteFinancial circumstances; Employment; Self-employed workersLink to the briefing note
Parental involvement in home schooling and developmental play during lockdown - Initial findings from the COVID19 Survey in Five National Longitudinal StudiesJuly 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalBriefing NoteHome schooling; Child development; ParentingLink to the briefing note
The Effect of the Great Lockdown on Homeworking in the United KingdomJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalReportHome working; Employment; Well beingLink to the report
Mental health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal probability sample survey of the UK populationJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleMental health; Inequalities; EmploymentLink to the article
Sleepless in Lockdown: unpacking differences in sleep loss during the coronavirus pandemic in the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Sleep loss; Ethnicity; Well-beingLink to the paper
Estimating Variation of Covid-19 infection in the Population:Results from Understanding Society (UKHLS) first monthly covid-19 surveyJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Infection rates; Ethnicity; Regional disparitiesLink to the paper
Home learning during Covid-19: Findings from the Understanding Society Longitudinal StudyJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalReportHome schooling; Inequalities; EthnicityLink to the report
Diagnostic value of skin manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infectionJuly 2020COVID Symptom TrackerNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptomology; Skin rashes; HospitalizationLink to the paper
Race, socioeconomic deprivation, and hospitalization for COVID-19 in English participants of a national biobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleEthnicity; Socioeconomic status; HospitalizationLink to the article
Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK BiobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleVitamin D; Ethnicity; InequalitiesLink to the article
COVID-19 and mental health deterioration among BAME groups in the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperMental health; Ethnicity; InequalitiesLink to the paper
Living in poverty was bad for your health before COVID-19July 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperPoverty; Inequalities; Public healthLink to the paper
Ethnicity and COVID-19 infection: are the pieces of the puzzle falling into place?July 2020UK BiobankNationalCommentaryEthnicity; Inequalities; DeprivationLink to the commentary
Intersecting household level health and socio-economic vulnerabilities and the COVID-19 crisis: an analysis from the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleHealth inequalities; Household types; EmploymentLink to the article
How has the Covid-19 crisis impacted parents’ relationships with their children?July 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPolicy briefingParenting; Inequalities; Family compositionLink to the briefing
Cut hours, not people: no work, furlough, short hours and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperWorking hours; Mental health; UnemploymentLink to the paper
Understanding Society COVID-19 Survey May Briefing Note: Family relationshipsJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteParenting; Home schooling; InequalitiesLink to the note
The mental health impact of COVID-19 and pandemic related stressors among adults in the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Mental health; Living conditions; WorkLink to the paper
The gender gap in mental well-being during the Covid-19 outbreak: evidence from the UKJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperMental health; Gender; LonelinessLink to the paper
Ethnic disparities in hospitalisation for COVID-19 in England: The role of socioeconomic factors, mental health, and inflammatory and pro-inflammatory factors in a community-based cohort studyJune 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleEthnicity; Mental health; HospitalizationLink to the article
The mental health effects of the first two months of lockdown and social distancing during the Covid-19 pandemic in the UKJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperMental health; Inequalities; Age groupsLink to the paper
Problem drinking before and during the COVID-19 crisis in US and UK adults: Evidence from two population-based longitudinal studiesJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Alcohol consumption; Mental health; Health behavioursLink to the paper
Inequalities in home learning and schools’ provision of distance teaching during school closure of COVID-19 lockdown in the UKJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperHome schooling; inequalities; ethnicityLink to the paper
The effects of coronavirus on household finances and financial distressJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteHousehold finances; Financial distress; EarningsLink to the briefing note
Did the UK policy response to Covid-19 protect household incomes?June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperHousehold income; Employment; EarningsLink to the paper
COVID-19 Survey Briefing Note: Health and caringJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteMental health; Health behaviours; CaringLink to the briefing note
COVID-19 Survey Briefing Note: Home schoolingJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteEducation; Household resources; ParentingLink to the briefing note
ALSPAC COVID-19 Questionnaire data (April-May 2020)June 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalData note (awaiting peer review)Cross-generation; Health; Well-being; BehaviourLink to the Data note
Longitudinal changes in mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from the UK Household Longitudinal Study.June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Mental health; Well-being; Demographic groupsLink to the paper
Gender inequalities: changes in income, time use and well-being before and during the UK COVID-19 lockdownJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Gender; Inequalities; Well-being; Time useLink to the paper
Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in two longitudinal UK population cohorts. June 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children / Generation ScotlandRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Mental health; Anxiety; Well-beingLink to the paper
COVID-19 and associations with frailty and multimorbidity: a prospective analysis of UK Biobank participants June 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Frailty; Multimorbidity; EpidemiologyLink to the paper
Ethnicity, comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and their associations with COVID-19 infection in England: a cohort analysis of UK Biobank data June 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Epidemiology; Inequalities; EthnicityLink to the paper
The idiosyncratic impact of an aggregate shock: the distributional consequences of COVID-19June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperEconomic shocks; Social security; EarningsLink to the paper
Older and ‘staying at home’ during lockdown: informal care receipt during the COVID-19 pandemic amongst people aged 70 and over in the UKJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Older people; Household composition; Care needsLink to the paper
The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact on Inequality of Opportunity in Psychological Distress in the UKMay 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Psychological distress; Occupation; InequalitiesLink to the paper
Obesity and risk of COVID-19: analysis of UK biobankMay 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleObesity; Health behaviours; BMILink to the article
COVID-19 Survey Briefing Note: The Economic EffectsMay 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteEconomics; Employment; EarningsLink to the briefing note
Real-time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19. May 2020Twins UKNationalArticleMedicine; Epidemiology; SymptomologyLink to the article
Rapid implementation of mobile technology for real-time epidemiology of COVID-19.May 2020Twins UKNationalArticleEpidemiology; Public health; Mobile technologyLink to the article
Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: A community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK.May 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleHealth behaviours; Inequalities; ObesityLink to the article
Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection: prospective cohort study using UK Biobank.May 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleHealth behaviours; Inequalities; EthnicityLink to the article
Generation Scotland CovidLife Survey First ReportMay 2020Generation ScotlandDevolved NationsReportEmployment; Well-being; Mental healthLink to the report
Current tobacco smoking and risk from COVID-19: results from a population symptom app in over 2.4 million people May 2020TwinsUK / COVID Symptom TrackerNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptoms; Smoking; EpidemiologyLink to the paper
Self-reported symptoms of covid-19 including symptoms most predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are heritable April 2020TwinsUKNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptoms; Heritability; Public healthLink to the paper
Geo-social gradients in predicted COVID-19 prevalence and severity in Great Britain: results from 2,266,235 users of the COVID-19 Symptoms Tracker app April 2020COVID Symptom TrackerNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Inequalities; Public health; DeprivationLink to the paper