COVID-19 Research and Evidence

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This section contains the latest COVID-19 longitudinal research and evidence, including briefing notes, reports, academic publications and articles.

Use the table below to search, sort and filter by study, topic, and geographical coverage.


COVID-19 PublicationDate of publicationLongitudinal studyGeographical coverageType of publicationTopic/themeAccess publication
Sociodemographic inequality in exposure to COVID-19-induced economic hardship in the United KingdomOctober 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleInequalities; Economic hardship; EarningsLink to the article
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children - A resource for COVID-19 research: Questionnaire data capture May-July 2020September 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalData note (awaiting peer review)Cross-generation; Health; Well-being; BehaviourLink to the Data note
Inequality in access to health and care services during lockdown - Findings from the COVID-19 survey in five UK national longitudinal studiesSeptember 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Access to health care; Inequalities; Public healthLink to the paper
The impact of asthma on mental health & wellbeing during COVID-19 lockdownSeptember 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Asthma; Self-isolation; Mental healthLink to the paper
COVID-19: has the pandemic affected relationships between children and their non-resident parents?September 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing NoteSeparated families; Child maintenance; Parent-child relationshipsLink to the briefing note
Changing living arrangements, family dynamics and stress during lockdown: evidence from four birth cohorts in the UK September 2020Understanding Society, Millennium Cohort Study; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study;NationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Living arrangements; Stress; LockdownLink to the paper
Altered blood cell traits underlie a major genetic locus of severe COVID-19September 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Genetics; Blood cells; PhysiologyLink to the paper
Occupation and risk of severe COVID-19: prospective cohort study of 120,075 UK BiobankSeptember 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Occupation; Inequalities; Health workersLink to the paper
Accounting for Time: Circadian Rhythms in the Time of COVID-19 September 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleSleep; Physiology; InfectionLink to the article
Associations between psychiatric disorders, COVID-19 testing probability and COVID-19 testing results: findings from a population-based studySeptember 2020UK BiobankNationalArticlePsychiatric disorders; Epidemiology; TestingLink to the article
Longitudinal evidence for persistent anxiety in young adults through COVID-19 restrictionsAugust 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Anxiety; Lockdown; AdolescentsLink to the paper
Gender differences in the impact of the Covid-19 lockdown on unpaid care work and psychological distress in the UKAugust 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Lockdown; Gender inequalities; Unpaid care workLink to the paper
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in pregnant women: characterization of symptoms and syndromes predictive of disease and severity through real-time, remote participatory epidemiologyAugust 2020TwinsUKNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Pregnancy; Epidemiology; ComorbidityLink to the paper
Association of obesity and its genetic predisposition with the risk of severe COVID-19: Analysis of population-based cohort dataAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleObesity; Genetics; EpidemiologyLink to the article
A common androgen synthesis variant is associated with COVID susceptibilityAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Sex differences; Physiology; ImmunologyLink to the paper
Excess cardiovascular deaths in the beginning of COVID-19 outbreakAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Cardiovascular disease; Mortality; HospitalizationLink to the paper
Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection and mortality in UK Biobank August 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleVitamin D; Mortality; InequalitiesLink to the article
Genetically-predicted vitamin D status, ambient UVB during the pandemic and COVID-19 risk in UK Biobank: Mendelian Randomisation studyAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Vitamin D; Genetics; SeasonalityLink to the paper
The Born in Bradford COVID-19 Research Study: Protocol for an adaptive mixed methods research study to gather actionable intelligence on the impact of COVID-19 on health inequalities amongst families living in BradfordAugust 2020Born in BradfordRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Health inequalities; Deprivation; Ethnicity; MethodologyLink to the paper
Pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and risk of COVID-19: a cohort analysis in the UK BiobankAugust 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Psychiatric disorders; Immune system; ComorbiditiesLink to the paper
Estrogen and COVID-19 symptoms: associations in women from the COVID Symptom StudyAugust 2020Twins UK/Symptom StudyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Estrogen; Women; MenopauseLink to the paper
TeenCovidLife Survey 1 General Report
Health and wellbeing of young people in lockdown
August 2020Generation ScotlandDevolved NationsReportYoung people; Well being; StressLink to the report
Mental health during lockdown: evidence from four generations - Initial findings from the COVID-19 Survey in Five National Longitudinal StudiesAugust 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalBriefing NoteMental health; Generations; InequalitiesLink to the briefing note
Intersecting ethnic and native–migrant inequalities in the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UKAugust 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleEthnicity; Socioeconomic status; InequalitiesLink to the article
Ethnic differences in effects of COVID-19:
household and local context
August 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing NoteEthnicity; Mental health; Neighbourhood cohesionLink to the briefing note
Dynamic linkage of COVID-19 test results between Public Health England's Second Generation Surveillance System and UK BiobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleEpidemiology; Genetics; MicrobiologyLink to the article
COVID-19 and associations with frailty and multimorbidity: a prospective analysis of UK Biobank participantsJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleComorbidity; Frailty; EpidemiologyLink to the article
Preexisting Comorbidities Predicting COVID-19 and Mortality in the UK Biobank Community CohortJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleComorbidity; Mortality; EpidemiologyLink to the article
Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic COVID-19 disease in a population sample from SE EnglandJuly 2020Twins UKRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptomology; Serology; AntibodiesLink to the paper
Changes in the behavioural determinants of health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: gender, socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in 5 British cohort studiesJuly 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Health behaviour; Gender; InequalitiesLink to the paper
Learning inequalities during the Covid-19 pandemic: how families cope with home-schoolingJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking PaperHome schooling; Family structure; Socioeconomic disadvantageLink to the report
Coronavirus and the impact on caringJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalReportCaring; Support; Well beingLink to the report
Finances and employment during lockdown - Initial findings from the COVID-19 Survey in Five National Longitudinal StudiesJuly 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalBriefing NoteFinancial circumstances; Employment; Self-employed workersLink to the briefing note
Parental involvement in home schooling and developmental play during lockdown - Initial findings from the COVID19 Survey in Five National Longitudinal StudiesJuly 2020Millennium Cohort Study; Next Steps; 1970 British Cohort Study; 1958 National Child Development Study; 1946 National Survey of Health and DevelopmentNationalBriefing NoteHome schooling; Child development; ParentingLink to the briefing note
The Effect of the Great Lockdown on Homeworking in the United KingdomJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalReportHome working; Employment; Well beingLink to the report
Mental health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal probability sample survey of the UK populationJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleMental health; Inequalities; EmploymentLink to the article
Sleepless in Lockdown: unpacking differences in sleep loss during the coronavirus pandemic in the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Sleep loss; Ethnicity; Well-beingLink to the paper
Estimating Variation of Covid-19 infection in the Population:Results from Understanding Society (UKHLS) first monthly covid-19 surveyJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Infection rates; Ethnicity; Regional disparitiesLink to the paper
Home learning during Covid-19: Findings from the Understanding Society Longitudinal StudyJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalReportHome schooling; Inequalities; EthnicityLink to the report
Diagnostic value of skin manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infectionJuly 2020COVID Symptom TrackerNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptomology; Skin rashes; HospitalizationLink to the paper
Race, socioeconomic deprivation, and hospitalization for COVID-19 in English participants of a national biobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleEthnicity; Socioeconomic status; HospitalizationLink to the article
Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK BiobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleVitamin D; Ethnicity; InequalitiesLink to the article
Genetic risk factors for death with SARS-CoV-2 from the UK BiobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Genetics; Ethnicity; SurvivalLink to the paper
Blood biomarker score identifies individuals at high risk for severe COVID-19 a decade prior to diagnosis: metabolic profiling of 105,000 adults in the UK BiobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Blood biomarkers; Metabolism; PneumoniaLink to the paper
Ethnicity and COVID-19 infection: are the pieces of the puzzle falling into place?July 2020UK BiobankNationalCommentaryEthnicity; Inequalities; DeprivationLink to the commentary
Intersecting household level health and socio-economic vulnerabilities and the COVID-19 crisis: an analysis from the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalArticleHealth inequalities; Household types; EmploymentLink to the article
How has the Covid-19 crisis impacted parents’ relationships with their children?July 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPolicy briefingParenting; Inequalities; Family compositionLink to the briefing
Understanding Society COVID-19 Survey May Briefing Note: Family relationshipsJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteParenting; Home schooling; InequalitiesLink to the note
The mental health impact of COVID-19 and pandemic related stressors among adults in the UKJuly 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Mental health; Living conditions; WorkLink to the paper
COVID-19 severity is predicted by earlier evidence of accelerated agingJuly 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Ageing; Biomarkers; RiskLink to the paper
Obesity, walking pace and risk of severe COVID-19: Analysis of UK BiobankJuly 2020UK BiobankNational Pre-print (awaiting peer review)Obesity; Walking; Public healthLink to the paper
Ethnic disparities in hospitalisation for COVID-19 in England: The role of socioeconomic factors, mental health, and inflammatory and pro-inflammatory factors in a community-based cohort studyJune 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleEthnicity; Mental health; HospitalizationLink to the article
BMI and future risk for COVID-19 infection and death across sex, age and ethnicity: preliminary findings from UK biobankJune 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)BMI; Physical health; EthnicityLink to the paper
The mental health effects of the first two months of lockdown and social distancing during the Covid-19 pandemic in the UKJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperMental health; Inequalities; Age groupsLink to the paper
Problem drinking before and during the COVID-19 crisis in US and UK adults: Evidence from two population-based longitudinal studiesJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Alcohol consumption; Mental health; Health behavioursLink to the paper
Inequalities in home learning and schools’ provision of distance teaching during school closure of COVID-19 lockdown in the UKJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperHome schooling; inequalities; ethnicityLink to the paper
Half of children entitled to free school meals do not have access to the scheme during the COVID-19 lockdown in the UKJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Free school meals; Food insecurity; PovertyLink to the paper
Did the UK policy response to Covid-19 protect household incomes?June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalWorking paperHousehold income; Employment; EarningsLink to the paper
Mental health and health behaviours before and during the COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of the UK Household Longitudinal Study.June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Mental health; Health behaviours; Psychological distressLink to the paper
COVID-19 Survey Briefing Note: Health and caringJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteMental health; Health behaviours; CaringLink to the briefing note
COVID-19 Survey Briefing Note: Home schoolingJune 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteEducation; Household resources; ParentingLink to the briefing note
ALSPAC COVID-19 Questionnaire data (April-May 2020)June 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and ChildrenRegionalData note (awaiting peer review)Cross-generation; Health; Well-being; BehaviourLink to the Data note
Longitudinal changes in mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from the UK Household Longitudinal Study.June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Mental health; Well-being; Demographic groupsLink to the paper
Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in two longitudinal UK population cohorts. June 2020Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children / Generation ScotlandRegionalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Mental health; Anxiety; Well-beingLink to the paper
Prevalence and Predictors of General Psychiatric Disorders and Loneliness during COVID-19 in the United Kingdom: Results from the Understanding Society UKHLS June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Loneliness; Mental health; InequalitiesLink to the paper
COVID-19 and associations with frailty and multimorbidity: a prospective analysis of UK Biobank participants June 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Frailty; Multimorbidity; EpidemiologyLink to the paper
Ethnicity, comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and their associations with COVID-19 infection in England: a cohort analysis of UK Biobank data June 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Epidemiology; Inequalities; EthnicityLink to the paper
Risk of Depression in Family Caregivers: Unintended Consequence of COVID-19June 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Depression; Family caregiving; LonelinessLink to the paper
The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact on Inequality of Opportunity in Psychological Distress in the UKMay 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Psychological distress; Occupation; InequalitiesLink to the paper
Obesity and risk of COVID-19: analysis of UK biobankMay 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleObesity; Health behaviours; BMILink to the article
COVID-19 Survey Briefing Note: The Economic EffectsMay 2020Understanding SocietyNationalBriefing noteEconomics; Employment; EarningsLink to the briefing note
Real-time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19. May 2020Twins UKNationalArticleMedicine; Epidemiology; SymptomologyLink to the article
Rapid implementation of mobile technology for real-time epidemiology of COVID-19.May 2020Twins UKNationalArticleEpidemiology; Public health; Mobile technologyLink to the article
Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: A community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK.May 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleHealth behaviours; Inequalities; ObesityLink to the article
Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection: prospective cohort study using UK Biobank.May 2020UK BiobankNationalArticleHealth behaviours; Inequalities; EthnicityLink to the article
Generation Scotland CovidLife Survey First ReportMay 2020Generation ScotlandDevolved NationsReportEmployment; Well-being; Mental healthLink to the report
Psychosocial factors and hospitalisations for COVID-19: Prospective cohort study of the general population May 2020UK BiobankNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Psychosocial factors; Hospitalisation; Cognitive functionLink to the paper
Who is lonely in lockdown? Cross-cohort analyses of predictors of loneliness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic May 2020Understanding SocietyNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Cross-cohort; Loneliness; InequalitiesLink to the paper
Current tobacco smoking and risk from COVID-19: results from a population symptom app in over 2.4 million people May 2020TwinsUK / COVID Symptom TrackerNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptoms; Smoking; EpidemiologyLink to the paper
Self-reported symptoms of covid-19 including symptoms most predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are heritable April 2020TwinsUKNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Symptoms; Heritability; Public healthLink to the paper
Geo-social gradients in predicted COVID-19 prevalence and severity in Great Britain: results from 2,266,235 users of the COVID-19 Symptoms Tracker app April 2020COVID Symptom TrackerNationalPre-print (awaiting peer review)Inequalities; Public health; DeprivationLink to the paper