ALSPAC – Age 18 months – GSMD Personal-Social Scale

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The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) assessed their cohort members (CMs) at 18 months’ age (Children in Focus Clinic) using the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development (GSMD) Personal-Social Scale.

Details on this measure and the data collected from the CMs are outlined in the table below.


Domain:Verbal and non-verbal social skills
Measures:Personal/social skills
Genera verbal information
Listening ability
CHC:Gkn (General domain-specific knowledge)
Gc (Crystallized Intelligence)
Administration method:Trained interviewer; clinical setting; guided play session
Procedure:During a guided play session, the interviewer noted (yes/no) whether the child was capable of performing tasks ranging in difficulty from 'Puts small objects in and out of cup in play' to 'Begins to co-operate in play with other children'. Also included a number of acquired knowledge items, e.g. "Where are the dolly's hands, etc."
Link to questionnaire:http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/our-data/clinical-measures/ (opens in new tab)
Scoring:Standardised DQ (0 - 100)
Item-level variable(s):Not readily available
Total score/derived variable(s):cf773, cf779
Descriptives:Unadjusted scoreAge adjusted score
N = 1,174N = 1,168
Range = 0 - 30Range = 64.38 - 130.92
Mean = 19.82Mean = 106.00
SD = 2.69SD = 10.87
(click image to enlarge)
(click image to enlarge)
Age of participants:Mean = 79.90 weeks, SD = 1.47, Range = 76 - 87
Other sweep and/or cohort:None
Source:Griffiths, R. (1970). The abilities of young children. London: Child Development Research Centre.
Technical resources:None
Reference examples:Little, R. E., Northstone, K., Golding, J., & ALSPAC Study Team. (2002). Alcohol, breastfeeding, and development at 18 months. Pediatrics, 109(5), e72-e72.
Pearson, R. M., Heron, J., Melotti, R., Joinson, C., Stein, A., Ramchandani, P. G., & Evans, J. (2011). The association between observed non-verbal maternal responses at 12 months and later infant development at 18 months and IQ at 4 years: A longitudinal study. Infant Behavior and Development, 34(4), 525-533.

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This page is part of CLOSER’s ‘A guide to the cognitive measures in five British birth cohort studies’.